сегодня слушал лекцию серьезного дядьки и опять то с чем ты не согласен:
"In a gasoline engine where we need
to close the throttle body under cruise conditions
in order to reduce the engine torque,
this produces a high level of vacuum in the inlet manifold and inlet
ports of the engine. This results in what is referred to as
pumping losses which simply means that it's harder for the piston to move
down the cylinder on the intake stroke because it's working against a vacuum."